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Elements of a Successful Partnership

With generous support from the MacArthur Foundation, CLPHA developed an in-depth report on regional housing-education collaborations taking place at housing authorities across the Pacific-Northwest.

Read the Multimedia Report
 

National Snapshot of PHA-Health Partnerships

The Council of Large Public Housing Authorities (CLPHA) provides new data about public housing authorities’ partnerships with the health sector and offers recommendations to encourage collaboration between these affordable housing providers and their health system partners.

Read the Report
 
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Research
Community:
Jun 5, 2019
A new report by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago finds that youth homelessness has its origins in early family experiences, including family homelessness. The findings make painfully clear that housing alone is insufficient to prevent and “end” youth homelessness, and that addressing youth homelessness alone, without explicit connections and fervent attention to family homelessness, will result in continued homelessness for all populations.

Authored by: SchoolHouse Connection
Topics: Early childhood, Homelessness, Housing, Legislation & Policy
Shared by Housing Is on Jun 5, 2019
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Research
Community:
Oct 14, 2017
While homeownership has been linked to positive health outcomes there is limited evidence regarding the conditions under which it may be health protective. We present a conceptual model linking homeownership to health, highlighting key potential pathways. Using the Detroit Metropolitan Area as a case study, and data from the American Community Survey (2009–2013; 5-years estimates) and Michigan Department of Community Health, we tested the following questions: (1) Is neighborhood percentage non-Hispanic Black (NHB) associated with homeownership? (2) Is neighborhood percentage NHB associated with health? (3) Is the association between percentage NHB and health mediated by homeownership? (4) Does neighborhood housing value modify associations between percentage NHB and health, or between homeownership and health?

Authored by: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Topics: Health, Housing, Research
Shared by Housing Is on May 23, 2019

Neighborhood Context, Homeownership and Home Value: An Ecological Analysis of Implications for Health

Research
Oct 14, 2017
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
While homeownership has been linked to positive health outcomes there is limited evidence regarding the conditions under which it may be health protective. We present a conceptual model linking homeownership to health, highlighting key potential pathways.
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Research
Community:
Mar 14, 2019
Despite abundant evidence about the effect of children’s socioeconomic circumstances on their transition to adulthood, we know much less about the effect of social policy programs aimed at poor families with children in facilitating how and when children become adults. This issue is particularly important for the U.S. federal subsidized housing program given its long history of placing subsidized units in some of the poorest and most racially segregated neighborhoods. Using counterfactual causal methods that adjust for the length of receipt of subsidized housing, I estimate the effect of subsidized housing on teenage parenthood, household formation, and educational attainment. I find that the subsidized housing program has either null or positive effects on the transition to adulthood and that these effects vary by both race and gender. These results underscore the importance of considering whether social programs have differential effects on the life chances of individuals based on both race and gender.

Authored by: Yana Kucheva for Demography
Topics: Homelessness, Housing, Racial inequalities, Research, Youth
Shared by Housing Is on May 20, 2019
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Research
Community:
May 18, 2018
Parent involvement is associated with child academic outcomes, positive behaviors, and social skills. This qualitative study explored school-based parent involvement barriers experienced by nine low-income mothers. In-depth interviews were used to collect data from mothers participating in a community-based program offered in a large public housing neighborhood. Findings included three main barriers: (a) cultural and language differences in their children’s school, (b) undertones of racism from teachers and parents, and (c) being the primary caregiver or sole provider for their children. Although all parents experience challenges to school involvement, low-income mothers face additional obstacles preventing them from engaging in their children’s schools. This perceived lack of school involvement can lead to feelings of helplessness, shame, and stigma.

Authored by: Stephanie Lechuga-Pena and Daniel Brisson for TQR
Topics: Education, Family engagement, Housing, Low-income, Racial inequalities, Research
Shared by Housing Is on Apr 25, 2019

Barriers to School-Based Parent Involvement While Living in Public Housing: A Mother's Perspective

Research
May 18, 2018
Stephanie Lechuga-Pena and Daniel Brisson for TQR
Parent involvement is associated with child academic outcomes, positive behaviors, and social skills. This qualitative study explored school-based parent involvement barriers experienced by nine low-income mothers.
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Research
Community:
Nov 27, 2018
A growing body of research suggests that housing eviction is more common than previously recognized and may play an important role in the reproduction of poverty. The proportion of children affected by housing eviction, however, remains largely unknown. We estimate that one in seven children born in large U.S. cities in 1998–2000 experienced at least one eviction for nonpayment of rent or mortgage between birth and age 15. Rates of eviction were substantial across all cities and demographic groups studied, but children from disadvantaged backgrounds were most likely to experience eviction. Among those born into deep poverty, we estimate that approximately one in four were evicted by age 15. Given prior evidence that forced moves have negative consequences for children, we conclude that the high prevalence and social stratification of housing eviction are sufficient to play an important role in the reproduction of poverty and warrant greater policy attention.

Authored by: Ian Lundberg and Louis Donnelly
Topics: Early childhood, Homelessness, Housing, Low-income, Racial inequalities, Research
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Apr 18, 2019

A Research Note on the Prevalance of Housing Eviction Among Children Born in U.S. Cities

Research
Nov 27, 2018
Ian Lundberg and Louis Donnelly
A growing body of research suggests that housing eviction is more common than previously recognized and may play an important role in the reproduction of poverty. The proportion of children affected by housing eviction, however, remains largely unknown.
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Research
Community:
To what extent is there a mix of incomes within the LIHTC complexes? Is it realistic to expect properties without an explicit mixed-income focus to create and sustain mixed-income communities?

Authored by: Raphael Bostic, Andrew Jakabovics, Richard Voith, and Sean Zielenback
Topics: Housing, Low-income, Research
Shared by Housing Is on Apr 17, 2019

Mixed-Income LIHTC Developments in Chicago: A First Look at Their Income Characteristics and Spillover Impacts

Research
Raphael Bostic, Andrew Jakabovics, Richard Voith, and Sean Zielenback
To what extent is there a mix of incomes within the LIHTC complexes? Is it realistic to expect properties without an explicit mixed-income focus to create and sustain mixed-income communities?
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Research
Community:
Jun 18, 2018
The social, economic, and physical environments in which older adults live play a vital role in healthy, active, and engaged lives. But older adults live in unequal environments. Low-income older adults and older racial-ethnic minorities are more likely to live in neighborhoods characterized by poverty, disorder, lack of social cohesion, and pollution. At all income levels there is a greater proportion of older racial-ethnic minorities in neighborhoods with economic, social, and physical problems. Neighborhood inequality may contribute to disparities in the aging experience.

Authored by: Jennifer Ailshire and Catherine Garcia for Generations (also featured by How Housing Matters at The Urban Institute)
Topics: Housing, Low-income, Racial inequalities, Seniors
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Apr 11, 2019

Unequal Places: The Impacts of Socioeconomic and Race/Ethnic Differences in Neighborhoods

Research
Jun 18, 2018
Jennifer Ailshire and Catherine Garcia for Generations (also featured by How Housing Matters at The Urban Institute)
The social, economic, and physical environments in which older adults live play a vital role in healthy, active, and engaged lives. But older adults live in unequal environments.
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Research
Community:
Feb 22, 2019
Thoughtfully developed, accessible communities may boost parent engagement and student outcomes in low-income neighborhoods

Authored by: Rachel Sturtz for University of Colorado Denver
Topics: Community development, Education, Family engagement, Housing, Low-income, Partnerships, Racial inequalities, Transportation
Shared by Housing Is on Apr 4, 2019
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Research
Community:
Mar 1, 2019
In 2015, approximately 21,000 youth in the United States became emancipated-commonly referred to as "aged out"-from the foster care system; neither being adopted nor reunified with their family of origin, and were therefore expected to live independent lives. In addition to the youth who aged out, nearly 1,000 youth ran away from foster care. Over the past two decades, studies have consistently indicated a strong association between experiencing homelessness and having prior placement in the foster care system. Youth who age out of foster care are among the populations at the greatest risk of becoming homeless with as many as half of youth experiencing homelessness or housing instability within 18 months of their exit from the foster care system. While precise population statistics on the number of youth experiencing homelessness are difficult to ascertain, it is estimated that approximately 1.24 million will face an episode of homelessness in a given year, representing approximately seven percent of the total population who are homeless.

Authored by: Nicholas Forge, Robin Hartinger-Saunders, Eric Wright, and Erin Ruel for Child Welfare Journal
Topics: Child welfare, Homelessness, Housing, Research, Youth
Shared by Housing Is on Apr 4, 2019

Out of the System and onto the Streets: LGBTQ-Identified Youth Experiencing Homelessness with Past Child Welfare System Involvement

Research
Mar 1, 2019
Nicholas Forge, Robin Hartinger-Saunders, Eric Wright, and Erin Ruel for Child Welfare Journal
In 2015, approximately 21,000 youth in the United States became emancipated-commonly referred to as "aged out"-from the foster care system; neither being adopted nor reunified with their family of origin, and were therefore expected to live independent lives.
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Research
Community:
Mar 28, 2019
Federal safety net programs are intended to protect the most vulnerable Americans—such as the elderly, people with severe disabilities and young children. Housing assistance plays a critical role in the safety net, providing decent, safe, and affordable housing for millions of extremely low-income and vulnerable families—though, because it is not an entitlement like other federal safety net programs, the assistance available falls far short of the need. Housing subsidies free families to spend on other essentials like healthy food, education, and health care.

Authored by: Susan J. Popkin for Journal of Housing & Community Development
Topics: Asset building, Dual-generation, Education, Housing, Mental health, Mobility, Partnerships, Research, Workforce development
Shared by Housing Is on Apr 2, 2019
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Research
Community:
Feb 1, 2019
The authors draw on interviews with 50 families in Cleveland and its suburbs to uncover their experiences in choosing a home and school for their children in the suburbs. Nearly all families were seeking the “package deal”— good schools in good neighborhoods — and looked to the suburbs to find it. Families were often convinced of the superior quality of suburban schools but, owing to the legacies of enduring structural racism and emerging segregation in the suburbs, Black families were more likely to be disappointed in their suburban schools than their white counterparts. Families of color were also constrained by the legacies of enduring structural racism that has reproduced racial inequalities.

Authored by: Anna Rhodes and Siri Warkentien for How Housing Matters Research (MacArthur Foundation)
Topics: Education, Housing, Legislation & Policy, Racial inequalities, Research
Shared by Housing Is on Mar 28, 2019

Even As The Suburbs Diversify, Racial Inequality Persists in Suburban Schools

Research
Feb 1, 2019
Anna Rhodes and Siri Warkentien for How Housing Matters Research (MacArthur Foundation)
The authors draw on interviews with 50 families in Cleveland and its suburbs to uncover their experiences in choosing a home and school for their children in the suburbs. Nearly all families were seeking the “package deal”— good schools in good neighborhoods — and looked to the suburbs to find it.
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Research
Community:
Mar 20, 2019
Launched in 2016, the Denver Supportive Housing SIB aims to support residents struggling with homelessness, substance use, and mental health problems by increasing the number of people getting and staying housed and reducing the number of days they spend in jail. The permanent supportive housing model combines a permanent housing subsidy with wraparound services, such as mental health counseling, to help people improve their stability. In Denver, MHCD and the Colorado Coalition for the Homeless (CCH) were selected to offer these services as part of the SIB.

Authored by: The Urban Institute
Topics: Cost effectiveness, Criminal justice, Homelessness, Housing, Low-income, Pacific Northwest, Partnerships, Research, Substance abuse
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Mar 26, 2019

Starting with Stability: How Denver Is Breaking the Homelessness-Jail Cycle

Research
Mar 20, 2019
The Urban Institute
Launched in 2016, the Denver Supportive Housing SIB aims to support residents struggling with homelessness, substance use, and mental health problems by increasing the number of people getting and staying housed and reducing the number of days they spend in jail.
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Research
Community:
Jan 1, 2019
Homelessness during pregnancy poses significant health risks for mothers and infants. As health care providers increase their emphasis on social determinants of health, it is important to understand how unstable housing contributes to complications during pregnancy. We linked data about emergency shelter enrollees with Massachusetts Medicaid claims for the period January 1, 2008–June 30, 2015 to compare health care use and pregnancy complications for 9,124 women who used emergency shelter with those for 8,757 similar women who did not. Rates of mental illness and substance use disorders were significantly higher among homeless women. Adjusted odds of having nine pregnancy complications were also significantly higher for homeless women and remained substantially unchanged after we adjusted for behavioral health disorders.

Authored by: Robin Clark, Linda Weinreb, Julie Flahive, and Robert Seifert for Health Affairs
Topics: Child welfare, Depression, Early childhood, Homelessness, Housing, Low-income, Mental health, Pre-natal, Research, Substance abuse
Shared by Housing Is on Mar 26, 2019

Homelessness Contributes To Pregnancy Complications

Research
Jan 1, 2019
Robin Clark, Linda Weinreb, Julie Flahive, and Robert Seifert for Health Affairs
Homelessness during pregnancy poses significant health risks for mothers and infants. As health care providers increase their emphasis on social determinants of health, it is important to understand how unstable housing contributes to complications during pregnancy.
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Research
Community:
The U.S. has a shortage of seven million rental homes affordable and available to extremely low-income renters, whose household incomes are at or below the poverty guideline or 30% of their area median income. Only 37 affordable and available rental homes exist for every 100 extremely low-income renter households. Extremely low-income renters face a shortage in every state and major metropolitan area, including the District of Columbia. Among states, the supply of affordable and available rental homes ranges from only 19 for every 100 extremely low-income renter households in Nevada to 66 in Wyoming. Among the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the U.S, the supply ranges from 13 affordable and available rental homes for every 100 extremely low-income renter households in Orlando, FL to 51 in Pittsburgh, PA.

Authored by: National Low Income Housing Coalition
Topics: Homelessness, Housing, Legislation & Policy, Research
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Mar 14, 2019
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Research
Community:
Feb 5, 2019
Housing is considered a social determinant of health, with poor housing conditions being associated with poor health. Veterans with disabilities are more likely to experience a housing crisis because of combat experiences and employment instability. We identified facilitators and barriers to finding and maintaining rental housing. We sought to understand the housing needs of Veterans with military-related disabilities using the biopsychoecological model (BEM) as an organizing framework.

Authored by: Semeah, Ahrentzen, Cowper-Ripley, Santos-Roman, Beamish, and Farley for Housing Policy Debate
Topics: Disabilities, Funding, Health, Homelessness, Housing, Legislation & Policy, Research, Safety, Seniors, Stability
Shared by Housing Is on Mar 14, 2019

In Their Own Words: Veterans with Disabilities Share Their Housing Challenges

Research
Feb 5, 2019
Semeah, Ahrentzen, Cowper-Ripley, Santos-Roman, Beamish, and Farley for Housing Policy Debate
Housing is considered a social determinant of health, with poor housing conditions being associated with poor health. Veterans with disabilities are more likely to experience a housing crisis because of combat experiences and employment instability.
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Research
Community:
The lead article, “Landlords: Critical Participants in the Housing Choice Voucher Program,” provides a basic overview of the HCV program and the role that landlords play in it; examines the implications of voucher acceptance for assisted households; surveys existing research on landlord participation; and provides examples of the types of program and initiatives that HUD, PHAs, and local governments are pursuing to increase voucher acceptance. The Research Spotlight, “HUD-Sponsored Research Sheds New Light on HCV Landlords,” by Meena Bavan and Paul Joice, discusses the findings of two recent HUD-sponsored studies, “A Pilot Study of Landlord Acceptance of Housing Choice Vouchers,” and “Urban Landlords and the Housing Choice Voucher Program: A Research Report.” Finally, the In Practice article, “PHAs Encourage Landlord Participation With Incentives,” discusses initiatives in Marin County, California, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, that offer financial benefits, education, and streamlined administrative processes to encourage landlords to lease to voucher holders.

Authored by: HUD, Office of Policy Development and Research
Topics: Housing, Legislation & Policy, Low-income, Research
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Mar 12, 2019
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Research
Community:
Nov 22, 2018
Improved access to health insurance contributed to reducing worry and stress associated with paying rent/mortgage or purchasing meals among low-income people. Expanding health insurance access may have contributed to increasing the disposable income of low income groups.

Authored by: Shiho Kino, Koryu Sato, and Iciro Kawachi for International Journal for Equity in Health
Topics: Affordable Care Act, Health, Housing, Low-income, Medicaid / Medicare, Mental health, Research, Stability
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Mar 7, 2019

Spillover benefit of improved access to healthcare on reducing worry about housing and meal affordability

Research
Nov 22, 2018
Shiho Kino, Koryu Sato, and Iciro Kawachi for International Journal for Equity in Health
Improved access to health insurance contributed to reducing worry and stress associated with paying rent/mortgage or purchasing meals among low-income people. Expanding health insurance access may have contributed to increasing the disposable income of low income groups.
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Research
Community:
Nov 1, 2018
In this study, researchers conduct a literature review across public health, environmental health, medical, sociology, and urban planning journals to synthesize the research on the mental health effects of rat infestations on residents living in urban neighborhoods.

Authored by: Kaylee Byers, Chelsea G. Himsworth, and Raymond Lam for The Journal of Environmental Health
Topics: Health, Housing, Low-income, Mental health, Research, Safety
Shared by Housing Is on Feb 28, 2019

The Mental Health Consequences of Rat Exposure

Research
Nov 1, 2018
Kaylee Byers, Chelsea G. Himsworth, and Raymond Lam for The Journal of Environmental Health
In this study, researchers conduct a literature review across public health, environmental health, medical, sociology, and urban planning journals to synthesize the research on the mental health effects of rat infestations on residents living in urban neighborhoods.
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Research
Community:
Feb 20, 2019
As the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) prioritizes programs to help households receiving rental assistance achieve economic self-sufficiency, researchers, policymakers, and advocates debate the utility of work requirements as an effective pathway toward economic self-sufficiency and the risks of offering rental assistance on a conditional basis. This study contributes additional evidence suggesting that work requirements, when implemented gradually and in context with hardship exemptions and local supports, can boost annual household income, earnings, and the adult-employment ratio* for low-income households with no work history. But work requirements have little effect on those with prior earnings.

Authored by: Han Bum Lee and Paul E. McNamara for Housing Policy Debate (How Housing Matters, Urban Institute)
Topics: Asset building, Housing, Legislation & Policy, Low-income, Research, Workforce development
Shared by Housing Is on Feb 21, 2019

Exploring the Effects of Work Requirements at a Small Illinois Housing Authority

Research
Feb 20, 2019
Han Bum Lee and Paul E. McNamara for Housing Policy Debate (How Housing Matters, Urban Institute)
As the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) prioritizes programs to help households receiving rental assistance achieve economic self-sufficiency, researchers, policymakers, and advocates debate the utility of work requirements as an effective pathway toward economic self-sufficiency
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Research
Community:
What is source of income discrimination, and who are the Rhode Islanders affected by it? The federal Fair Housing Act prohibits housing discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, familial status, sex, and disability. Rhode Island state law goes further, granting residents additional rights. Yet both still allow landlords to reject a prospective tenant based solely on where his or her income comes from, even when the applicant can lawfully pay the requested rent.

Authored by: SouthCoast Fair Housing
Topics: East Coast, Housing, Low-income, Racial inequalities, Research
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Feb 19, 2019
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Research
Community:
Jan 10, 2019
Local officials, impact investors, and philanthropy have important roles to play in helping communities access Opportunity Zone financing that benefits current residents, especially those with low or moderate incomes. Using Chicago and Cook County as a case study, we identify steps these actors can take to attract helpful, and limit harmful, investments. We find that the Opportunity Zones selected in Chicago and Cook County broadly fulfilled the incentive’s spirit, targeting areas that were more economically distressed. Going forward, it will be necessary to leverage available policy and philanthropic levers to compel private action in line with community interests.

Authored by: Brett Theodos and Brady Meixell for the Urban Institute
Topics: Community development, Funding, Housing, Legislation & Policy, Midwest, Place-based, Research
Shared by Housing Is on Feb 14, 2019

How Chicago and Cook County Can Leverage Opportunity Zones for Community Benefit

Research
Jan 10, 2019
Brett Theodos and Brady Meixell for the Urban Institute
Local officials, impact investors, and philanthropy have important roles to play in helping communities access Opportunity Zone financing that benefits current residents, especially those with low or moderate incomes.
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Research
Community:
Feb 5, 2019
Baltimore is the 30th-largest US city by population and is a study in contrasts. It has a low average income compared with other wealthy Northeast cities, has nine colleges and universities, and is a magnet for people pursuing higher education but has undergone decades of population loss. A large social sector provides important services to residents and buoys the local economy: nearly every third job in the city is with a nonprofit employer. But this also illustrates the city’s limited economic vibrancy. This mix of market and nonmarket forces makes Baltimore an important place to examine the geography of opportunity in an American city.

Authored by: The Urban Institute
Topics: Community development, East Coast, Housing, Low-income, Racial inequalities, Research
Shared by Housing Is on Feb 14, 2019

"The Black Butterfly:" Racial Segregation and Investment Patterns in Baltimore

Research
Feb 5, 2019
The Urban Institute
Baltimore is the 30th-largest US city by population and is a study in contrasts. It has a low average income compared with other wealthy Northeast cities, has nine colleges and universities, and is a magnet for people pursuing higher education but has undergone decades of population loss.
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Research
Community:
Feb 6, 2019
Research suggests that living in concentrated poverty is harmful to health, well-being, and economic mobility. Inclusionary zoning can break up poverty density by imposing legal requirements to create affordable housing across neighborhoods. In Montgomery County, Maryland, inclusionary zoning laws require developers to set aside 12 to 15 percent of new homes at below-market rates and allow the public housing authority to purchase a portion of these units. As a result, two-thirds of public housing residents in Montgomery County live in economically diverse, low-poverty neighborhoods. To assess the effects of these unique conditions, researchers explored how public housing residents’ social networks, neighborhood perceptions, and health outcomes differ based on their placement in mixed-income communities or traditionally clustered public housing.

Authored by: Heather Schwartz, Susan Burkhauser, Beth Ann Griffin, David Kennedy, Harold Green Jr., Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, and Craig Pollack for Housing Policy Debate, How Housing Matters
Topics: Community development, Housing, Mental health, Place-based, Research
Shared by Housing Is on Feb 7, 2019

Inclusionary Zoning Can Improve Outcomes for Public Housing Residents

Research
Feb 6, 2019
Heather Schwartz, Susan Burkhauser, Beth Ann Griffin, David Kennedy, Harold Green Jr., Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, and Craig Pollack for Housing Policy Debate, How Housing Matters
Research suggests that living in concentrated poverty is harmful to health, well-being, and economic mobility. Inclusionary zoning can break up poverty density by imposing legal requirements to create affordable housing across neighborhoods.
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Research
Community:
Mar 14, 2017
This brief examines the well-being of young children 20 months after staying in emergency homeless shelters with their families.

Authored by: Office of the Administration for Children & Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Topics: Early childhood, Homelessness, Housing, Literacy, Low-income, Research, School-readiness
Shared by Mica O'Brien on Jan 29, 2019
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Research
Community:
Jan 23, 2019
This research brief explores how access to rental assistance affects the self-management behaviors of people with type 2 diabetes. Through semi structured interviews with 40 low-income residents of New Haven, Connecticut, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, researchers analyzed the effects of housing stability and affordability on their self-care routines.

Authored by: Danya Keene, Mariana Henry, Carina Gormley, and Chima Ndumele for Cityscape
Topics: East Coast, Health, Homelessness, Housing, Low-income, Research
Shared by Housing Is on Jan 24, 2019